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Laetrile (i.e. amygdalin or Vitamin B17) therapy is one of the most popular and best-known holistic cancer treatments. It is very simple to use and is very effective if used in high enough doses and if the product is of high quality and if it is combined with an effective cancer diet and key supplements.
Vitamin B17 is more commonly known as amygdalin, which is a chemical compound found in certain foods, most famously the pits of apricots, as well as apple, pear, plum, and peach seeds. The reason that amygdalin is so well known is that it can partially be broken down into cyanide within the body, which can be potentially toxic, so excessive consumption of amygdalin is not recommended. However, it has also been used widely in traditional and more modern medical practices for the treatment of certain chronic illnesses.
Laetrile works by targeting and killing cancer cells and building the immune system to fend off future outbreaks of cancer. It uses two different methods for killing cancer cells. It involves a strict diet (as do all cancer treatments).
Due to the increase in demand for apricot kernels and the elevated risk for cyanide poisoning in those attempting to naturally heal themselves with amygdalin, vitamin B17 was deemed to be illegal in the United States in 1977. More specifically, it was cited that many of the claims were unfounded, and the risk of cyanide poisoning was too great. That being said, the debate over these supplements continues to this day, and it continues to be used in some cancer treatment programs in other parts of the world.

The reason laetrile therapy takes time to work, in spite of the marvelous design of the laetrile molecule, is because if the laetrile molecule happens to chemically react with the enzyme of a non-cancerous cell, before it reacts with the enzyme of a cancerous cell, the non-cancerous cell will break apart the laetrile molecule in such a way that it can no longer kill a cancer cell. Thus, you have to take enough laetrile molecules, over a long enough time, that enough laetrile molecules coincidently (as far as we know) hits all of the cancer cells first.
The second way that laetrile therapy works is because of the laetrile diet. Like the metabolic diet, it is designed to build up the trypsin and chymotrypsin in the body, and let them work on the cancer cells. What they do is break down the enzymes surrounding the cancer cell so the white blood cells can identify and kill the cancer cell. More will be said about the cancer diet below.
One of the good side-effects of laetrile therapy is that more Vitamin B12 is made in the body. With this in mind, make sure you supplement laetrile therapy with Vitamin C. Vitamin C and Vitamin B12 are, by themselves, a treatment for cancer.

IPT is a treatment strategy that utilizes the physiological activities of insulin. It is based on the theory that insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) play an important role in the cell cycle.
IGF has been shown to affect proliferation, adhesion, and migration of normal as well as cancerous cells and certain IGF receptors are found to be overexpressed in many forms of cancer. Therefore, cancer cells may be selectively more sensitive than normal cells to IGF.

IGF receptors can be activated by exogenous insulin. Insulin is also believed to increase the permeability of cell membranes, leading to the increased intracellular concentrations and cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs.

Proponents argue that insulin synergistically enhances the efficacy of anticancer drugs so that a reduced dose can be used with similar cytotoxic effects. However, the role of IGF receptors in cancer treatment appears to be more complex. At least one study has demonstrated that IGF receptor inhibition can also increase the effects of anticancer drugs.


The word chelation is derived from the Greek word chele that means claw (like that of a scorpion or crab). The concept of chelation is based on the observation that when a certain amino acid complex called EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid) comes in contact with certain positively charged metals and other substances such as lead, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, zinc, plutonium and manganese, it grabs them (hence the chele or claw), and removes them. Chelation therapy is the process of removing from the body the undesirable ionic material by the infusion, or taking orally, of an organic compound which has suitable chelating properties.

EDTA is a synthetic amino acid first used in the 1940's for treatment of heavy metal poisoning. It is widely recognized as effective for that use as well as certain others, including emergency treatment of hypercalcemia and the control of ventricular arrhythmias associated with digitalis toxicity. Studies by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in the late 1960's indicated that EDTA was considered possibly effective in the treatment of occlusive vascular disorders caused by arteriosclerosis. EDTA grabs metallic cation such as Lead or Calcium from the body and forms a stable compound that is then excreted from the system. The stability of this bond is vital to success in chelation therapy. If the bond is weak, other chemicals can break this bond to form their own compounds.
One way to think about the chelation process is to compare it to the way we unclog our drains. We add a chemical to our drain. It dissolves the blockage. The resulting compound is removed from the drain using the existing plumbing system. Chelation process works in a similar manner on our body.

Some Benefits of Chelation Therapy

Chelation therapy is widely used for the treatment of atherosclerosis and other chronic degenerative diseases involving the circulatory system. It also has other benefits. Many scientists suggest that the beneficial effect of chelation treatment is from the removal of metallic catalysts that causes excessive free radical proliferation. This reduces the oxidation of lipids, DNA, enzyme systems and lipoproteins. The chelation halts the bad effects and initiates the body's healing process, often reversing the damage. It removes the calcium and copper anions from the blood stream. The plaque lining the artery walls are made porous and brittle. Eventually they may get dislodged. Even if only a microscopic layer of the plaque is removed, it, along with a smoothening of the artery wall due to the healing of the cells that line the arteries, can improve the blood flow to the artery muscles substantially. This can prevent artery spasm and minimize or prevent angina pain. Many patients who could not walk due to muscle pain or angina pain have reported that they can walk without pain after chelation therapy.

    •  Reduces Free Radical Activity in the Blood: we can think of our cells in the body as miniature factories. Inside the cell, the digestive process is going on. That means converting the raw materials into energy and protein compounds. Like in a factory, there are mechanisms to transport material within the cell as well as mechanisms to transport material to and from the cell. In our body, these mechanisms are performed by complex enzyme activity. The skin that surrounds a cell controls what goes in and what goes out of it. (It is like the shipping and receiving department in a factory.) The active cell membrane is made up of lipids (Cholesterol), proteins and water. As explained free radicals can cause lipid peroxidation (fat becomes rancid). This is what happens when atherosclerosis begins in an artery wall. The majority of lipid peroxidation activity involves the presence of metal ions such as iron, copper or calcium. EDTA effectively locks onto these ions, preventing their destructive action. Proponents of Chelation Therapy claim that EDTA can reduce the production of free radicals by up to a million-fold! Research over the past 30 years has confirmed the benefits of EDTA. This protective influence of EDTA would be enhanced by an appreciable presence of antioxidant nutrients such as vitamins A, C and E, selenium, and amino acid complexes such as glutathione peroxidase. These not only mop up free radicals but also assist in reinforcing the stability of cell membranes.

    •  Blocks Calcium Absorption, Repairs Damaged Muscles, Improves the Cell Energy Production: We have seen that calcium passes through the damaged cell walls into the cells. If calcium gets deposited in arterial walls, it inhibits the enzyme activity which, in turn, affects the production of energy, the movement of raw material, finished products, and waste products from the cell. The cells become energy starved and become acidic as a result. This can lead to premature aging, unbalanced calcium/magnesium ratios, free radical activity, local toxicity, oxygen deficit, nutritional imbalance, etc.
The cells that have become energy starved and acidic start to attract calcium ions, drawing them into the cell this, further, blocks energy production. The result is degenerative cardiovascular conditions. When this happens, the muscles that surround the arteries go into spasm. Doctors start treating this problem with calcium channel blockers. The problem is that calcium channel blockers block the calcium intake by the muscles; but it does nothing to cure the underlying problems of cell damage. This process gets really out of hand in the presence of additional Vitamin D and cholesterol. Free radicals helps to convert the cholesterol into substances with Vitamin D activity. This produces plaque, which, in turn, attracts calcium cementing the material. How does EDTA infusion affect this condition? First, EDTA removes the toxic metal ions such as lead, calcium, mercury, cadmium, copper, iron, and aluminum from the blood stream.
These are necessary for the production of free radicals. By removing the extra calcium from the blood stream, there is no more free calcium available to produce plaque. It means that the cells can start to repair themselves. Their production of energy increases. As more and more cells rebuild, our body becomes healthier. They can ward off intruders. The result is that we have started a salvage and regeneration activity that repairs previously damaged muscles and heart. And the whole body benefits as a result.

    •  Reduces Blood Stickiness or Clotting: EDTA is believed to reduce the blood platelet formation. This makes the blood less sticky, the blood can now flow trough narrow arteries. It can flow through even partially blocked arteries minimizing the effect of the blockage.

    •  Normalizes abnormal Cholesterol and HDL levels: There are two types of cholesterol: the good cholesterol called HDL and the bad cholesterol called LDL. What we want is a high amount of HDL in our blood along with a low level of LDL. We also desire low total cholesterol. Researchers have found that EDTA infusion, combined with vitamin and mineral supplements, raised the good (HDL) cholesterol and lowered the bad (LDL) cholesterol. If the HDL was low, it was raised; however, if it was already high, its level remains the same. Similarly, the LDL was lowered if it was high. EDTA optimizes the ratio of HDL and LDL.

    •  Cancer Treatment: Free radicals play an important role in the genesis of cancer. By removing the metallic anions from the blood stream, EDTA helps the cells to remain healthy and helps the damaged cells to heal. Research has shown a decrease in the incidence of death by cancer after EDTA treatment. In some forms of cancer, the use of EDTA was found to strip the tumor cells of their protective coat, allowing other mechanisms (such as protein digesting enzymes) to destroy the tumors.

    •  Other Benefits: Reduction of fatigue in patients who have undergone chelation therapy. Other improvements are in the reduction of neurological symptoms, cardiovascular symptoms, skin conditions, respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal, genital and urinary symptoms. It is only fair to say that in some cases, the benefits attributed to EDTA infusion may be from the adaptation of healthy ways of living for example, the therapists ask their patients to do some changes on life style such as: quit smoking, lose weight, exercise regularly, take vitamins and mineral supplements, all of which will have a positive effect on the health.


Despite the fact that 35 years have passed since Linus Pauling’s discovery (Nobel Prize), intravenous Vitamin C has been slow to be introduced into medicine.

Vitamin C intravenously reaches a 25 times higher level in the blood stream compared to taking it by mouth. High levels of Vitamin “C” kill cancer cells because it is gobbled up by rapidly multiplying cancer cells as if it were sugar. Inside the cancer cells Vitamin C is believed to turn into Hydrogen Peroxide. Peroxide does not harm normal cells which have a detoxifying enzyme called Katalase that renders peroxide harmless. Cancer cells do not have Katalase.
By mouth, only levels of 200 (micromol/litre) can be reached even with the highest tolerable Vitamin C intake. Intravenously, levels of 10,000 (micromol/L) are easily reached.

In such, Vitamin C does not act as an anti-oxidant, but rather as an oxidizer (killer) of cancer cells and viruses. Intravenous Vitamin C could be called a “Smart Bomb” delivery system. Cancer killing Hydrogen Peroxide is delivered to the tumor target cells only without “collateral damage” to the healthy cells.
Another medicine this treatment uses is DMSO, Is well known DMSO target cancer cells and open their ports allowing vitamin C go inside the cancer cells.

Hydrogen peroxide is a powerful oxygenator and oxidizer. It readily breaks down into water and oxygen.
Our immune system needs hydrogen peroxide to function properly. Granulocytes, a class of white blood cells, produce hydrogen peroxide as a first line of defense against harmful parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi. It is also used in the metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct of cell metabolism. It acts as a hormonal regulator and is necessary for the production of the body's estrogen, progesterone and thyroxin. It is also involved in the regulation of blood sugar and production of energy in the body cells.


The chemical reaction of hydrogen peroxide goes like this:

H2O2 --------> H2O + O

Hydrogen peroxide turns into water and singlet oxygen.
This reaction forms singlet oxygen. This singlet oxygen is a powerful oxidizing agent, active in hydrogen peroxide therapy. Singlet oxygen affects the body in two ways:

    •  It kills or severely restricts growth of anaerobic organisms, which are bacteria that use carbon dioxide for fuel.
    •  It transforms biological waste products and industrial toxins into inert substances by immobilizing them. This makes the waste products and toxins easier to handle for the kidney and liver. It also doubles the rate of enzymatic metabolism in mitochondria within each cell. By doubling the rate of enzymatic metabolism, the body can cleanse itself of toxins and preserve the energy that is needed for day-to-day functions.

Hydrogen peroxide therapy helps cleanse toxins that come from substances like accumulated pesticide, preservatives and organic industrial pollutants. The cleansing of toxins is often enough to allow the body to heal itself.


In 1966, Doctor Otto Warburg discovered that the key precondition for the development of cancer is a lack of oxygen at the cellular level. Cancer cells need 60% less oxygen than normal, healthy cells and perform poorly in the presence of excess oxygen. Therefore, cancer cells may be destroyed in the high-oxygen environment that is produced through hydrogen peroxide therapy.
Hydrogen peroxide is an antineoplastic, meaning that it inhibits the growth of new tissues, like tumors. Hydrogen peroxide also increases production of interferon and tumor necrosis factors, which the body uses to fight infections and cancers. Cancer cells in the presence of increased oxygen tension become more sensitive to irradiation, and this increased oxygen tension is produced by hydrogen peroxide.
Hydrogen peroxide contributes to the lysine, or destruction, of tumor cells by macrophages and granulocytes.


Bio-oxidative therapy uses the principles of oxidization to bring about improvements in the body. Aerobic-type exercises, rhythmic breathing and oxygen-rich foods fresh fruits and vegetables promote normal oxidization. Two natural elements ozone and hydrogen peroxide are the two most powerful oxidizers available. Ozone and hydrogen peroxide are two natural elements that provide the most powerful oxidization. When levels of oxygen increase, the potential for disease decreases. Large amounts of oxygen flooding the body can kill germs, parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses. It also helps healthy cells to multiply, resulting in a stronger immune system and improved immune response.


The combination of hydrogen peroxide therapy with EDTA “chelation therapy” is effective in treating vascular disease. Hydrogen peroxide has been proven to dissolve plaque in large arteries while EDTA chelation clears small vessels and creates collateral circulation around large vessel blockages.


    •  Acute and chronic viral infections
    •  Allergies
    •  Alzheimer's disease
    •  Angina
    •  Asthma
    •  Cardiovascular disease (heart disease)
    •  Cerebral vascular disease (stroke and memory loss)
    •  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    •  Chronic pain syndromes
    •  Chronic non-responsive bacterial infections
    •  Emphysema
    •  Herpes simplex
    •  Herpes zoster (shingles)
    •  HIV-related infections
    •  Influenza
    •  Metastatic carcinoma (cancer)
    •  Migraine headaches
    •  Multiple sclerosis
    •  Parasitic infections
    •  Peripheral vascular disease (poor circulation)
    •  Rheumatoid arthritis
    •  Systematic chronic candida (yeast infections)
    •  Vascular headaches

Hyperthermia use microwaves controlled by a computer targeting cancer mass, raising the internal temperature of the cancer cell approximately 107 to 108 Fahrenheit.
Several research centers & hospitals throughout Europe, Asia, and the United States are actively studying the application of hyperthermia on weakening and even killing cancer cells within the body. In addition, this same research is also showing how hyperthermia can be combined together with radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy medicines so that their positive effects can be enhanced in the killing of cancer cells. In basic terms you are "boosting" the benefits of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy with heat! For patients whose cancers have become more resistant to chemotherapy, hyperthermia is also showing promise in making those situations work better as well.
There are several reasons as to how the uses of hyperthermia work in fighting cancer:

    •  Increases the immune system cells capacity to kill cancer cells. (i.e. macrophage, lymphocyte, cytotoxic T cells, dendritic cells.)
    •  Increases lymphocyte recruitment and trafficking into the tumor area.
    •  Increases heat-shock proteins.
    •  Increases blood flow/oxygen (i.e. hypoxic tumors).
    •  Makes tumor cell walls more "leaky" or weaker; allowing cancer-killing medicines to enter the cell more easily.

Ozone, best known for its protective role in the earth's ecological harmony, and for its interaction at ground level with industrial pollutants, has unique biological properties which are being investigated for applications in various medical fields.

Ozone is one of the therapies used by health care professionals across the planet. In fact more and more clinics, doctors and countries are now researching and using Medical Ozone Therapy as an Alternative holistic source for healing.
The action of ozone has beneficial effects on every part and organ. Some of the effects are:

    •  Ozone Therapy stimulates the production of white blood cells. These cells protect the body from viruses, bacteria, fungi and cancer. If, deprived of oxygen, these cells malfunction.
    •  Interferon levels are significantly increased. Interferons are globular proteins. Interferons orchestrate every aspect of the immune system, inhibit viral replication.
    •  Ozone Therapy stimulates the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor. TNF is produced by the body when a tumor is growing.
    •  Ozone oxidizes arterial plaque. It breaks down the plaque involved in both Arteriosclerosis and Arthrosclerosis.
    •  Ozone increases the flexibility and elasticity of red blood cells.
    •  Ozone accelerates the Citric Acid Cycle. Also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA Cycle, this is a very important step in the glycolysis of carbohydrates for energy.
    •  Ozone makes the antioxidant enzyme system more efficient.
    •  Ozone degrades petrochemicals. These chemicals have a potential to place a great burden on the immune system.

Ozone therapy is harmless when used properly and has virtually no side effects.

It is one of the most effective ways of restoring optimal levels of oxygen. Its actions have beneficial effects on every part that will stimulate the bodies immune system.

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a therapy intended to improve muscle strength and overall fitness.

In spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), WBV is investigated as a method to improve motor function and mobility.

WBV can also be used in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and is well-tolerated. DMD is a genetic condition that leads to progressive deterioration of muscle fibers.

How WBV therapy works

During WBV, the person sits or lies on a machine with a vibrating platform. The device sends energy to the body, which forces the muscle to contract and relax dozens of times per second.

Even though it does not involve active exercise, it can be exhausting and feel like having been to the gym.

Advocates claim that 15 minutes three times a week is sufficient to build strength and improve flexibility and fitness. It may also help reduce back pain and bone loss.

However, comprehensive research to support these claims has not been performed. It is not clear whether the therapy has comparable or additional benefits to regular physical activity; it is usually recommended that WBV be combined with exercise. This can be strength training or cardiovascular exercise.

Tumours require a vascular supply to grow and can achieve this via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands. Since one or more of the VEGF ligand family is overexpressed in most solid cancers, there was great optimism that inhibition of the VEGF pathway would represent an effective anti-angiogenic therapy for most tumour types. Encouragingly, VEGF pathway targeted drugs such as bevacizumab, sunitinib and aflibercept have shown activity in certain settings.

However, inhibition of VEGF signalling is not effective in all cancers, prompting the need to further understand how the vasculature can be effectively targeted in tumours. Here we present a succinct review of the progress with VEGF-targeted therapy and the unresolved questions that exist in the field: including its use in different disease stages (metastatic, adjuvant, neoadjuvant), interactions with chemotherapy, duration and scheduling of therapy, potential predictive biomarkers and proposed mechanisms of resistance, including paradoxical effects such as enhanced tumour aggressiveness.

In terms of future directions, we discuss the need to delineate further the complexities of tumour vascularisation if we are to develop more effective and personalised anti-angiogenic therapies.

M-CSF and GM-CSF are 2 important cytokines that regulate macrophage numbers and function. Their known effects on cells of the macrophage-monocyte lineage.

Important clues to their function come from their expression patterns. M-CSF exhibits a mostly homeostatic expression pattern, whereas GM-CSF is a product of cells activated during inflammatory or pathologic conditions. Accordingly, M-CSF regulates the numbers of various tissue macrophage and monocyte populations without altering their "activation" status. Conversely, GM-CSF induces activation of monocytes/macrophages and also mediates differentiation to other states that participate in immune responses [i.e., dendritic cells (DCs)].

Further insights into their function have come from analyses of mice deficient in either cytokine. M-CSF signals through its receptor (CSF-1R). Interestingly, mice deficient in CSF-1R expression exhibit a more significant phenotype than mice deficient in M-CSF. This observation was explained by the discovery of a novel cytokine (IL-34) that represents a second ligand of CSF-1R.

Information about the function of these ligands/receptor system is still developing, but its complexity is intriguing and strongly suggests that more interesting biology remains to be elucidated. Based on our current knowledge, several therapeutic molecules targeting either the M-CSF or the GM-CSF pathways have been developed and are currently being tested in clinical trials targeting either autoimmune diseases or cancer.

It is intriguing to consider how evolution has directed these pathways to develop; their complexity likely mirrors the multiple functions in which cells of the monocyte/macrophage system are involved.

Central venous access is a commonly performed procedure with approximately 8 percent of hospitalized patients requiring central venous access during the course of their hospital stay. More than five million central venous catheters are inserted in the United States each year.

Central venous access is also needed to place pulmonary artery catheters and plasmapheresis and hemodialysis catheters, as well as to place inferior vena cava filters, introduce wires for transvenous pacing and defibrillator devices, and for venous interventions. The central venous access site and manner in which access is achieved depend upon the indication for placement, patient anatomy, and other patient-related factors.

The indications for central venous access, types of central catheters, catheter selection, site selection, and general issues of preparation and placement will be reviewed here. The role of catheters and devices for monitoring cardiac parameters or administering chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition is discussed in separate topic reviews.

The general principles of dynamic ultrasound-guided placement and placement of jugular, subclavian, and femoral catheters; issues specific to these anatomic sites; routine maintenance and care of catheters and port devices; and complications of central venous catheters and related devices are discussed elsewhere.